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25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

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Why March 25 is National Anniversary; A brief history of the Revolution of March 25 1821 – The difficulties and risks to fail completely

The beginning, Plan and highlights of the Greek Revolution 1821 – The Role of Friendly Company…..

celebration day emotion and March 25th for worldwide Hellenism, since the beginning of the Greek Revolution of March 25 1821 to which the Greek people decided to react dynamically and to overthrow the regime of enslavement for about 400 years, under the Turkish yoke.

What happened, I wonder, at 25 March 1821 and we highlight as the day of our national holiday;

Every year on 25 March honor and celebrate the uprising of the enslaved Greeks against the Turkish oppressor of freedom and self-determination. In fact is the most important date in the history of Modern Greece, as the starting point of national regeneration.

The anniversary to celebrate the national uprising in 25 It was established in March 15 Of March 1838 by King Otto, to connect to the ecclesiastical event of the Annunciation. It was desire of Alexander Ypsilanti and the Society of Friends to link the beginning of the revolution with a great church festival to boost the morale of the enslaved Greeks.

In fact, The Revolution did not start in 25 Of March 1821, but a few days earlier in the Peloponnese, a region with compact Greek populations and small military presence of the Turks.

The military and political commander of the Peloponnese (Mora Walesa) Hoursit Pasha was in Ioannina to kill Ali Pasha, who had become autonomous from the Porte. Before departure, the Hoursit had received assurances from the notables of the Morea that the rumors circulating about the impending uprising of slaves were unsubstantiated.

Achaeans and Mani disagree on who threw the first musketry national uprising. At 21 March begins the siege of Kalavryta by Sotiris Charalampis and Petmezaious. It is the first act of war of the Revolution and ending victorious after five days.

At 23 March Mani under the leadership of Petrobey Mavromichali and auxiliary support of Theodoros Kolokotronis occupied Kalamata and the proclamation make known to the international community the uprising of the Greeks.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

The same day, men Andreas Londos bring under their control the Vostitsa (current Aegio), while revolutionary turmoil prevails in Patras. From Constantinople to go to Mount Athos depart the Serres merchant and ardent patriot Emmanuel Pappas, to start the revolution in Macedonia.

The March 23 is the first important stage of the national struggle and could well have taken its place March 25 at the festive calendar of our country.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

The introduction of the celebration

First Panagiotis Soutsos proposed the 1834 establishing celebration of Greek Revolution on March 25, saying it was the day generalization of the revolution in the Peloponnese and regeneration of Greece, in a memorandum which John Kolettis submitted the proposal as Otto Bill.

The document Koletti, then Ministry. Interior, is dated 22 January / 2 Feb.. 1835 and proposed to the King the adoption celebrations Panhellenic similar struggles with those of ancient Greece.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

The lecture is in English, with German summary

Αναφέρει ότι οπερίφημος Γερμανός” (Germanos celebrate) declared the Revolution on 17 Of March 1821 Agia Lavra, and that the revolution was generalized in the Peloponnese 25 March which he considered as the starting date of a new era for Greece.

even he says that there was a prophecy of the monks of the Great Cave that p’ that date will happen revival of Greece, and that the Peloponnese Ottomans knew and every year this date took extraordinary security measures.

The celebrations offered Kolettis included competitions in arts and letters and at various events. They were in Tripoli, Athens, Hydra and Missolonghi, rotating within four years, as in ancient times, the Olympic, the Pythian etc..

The 1836 25 March was honored along with Kalavryta P.. Patron Germanos with bronze medal minted on the occasion of the marriage of King Otto and Amalia.

S.’ it depicts the legendary scene, the German holding flag and raised the cross and two armed militants moving swearing or greeting. Φέρει την επιγραφήΘΕΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΠΑΤΡΟΣ ΜΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΥΨΩΣΩ ΑΥΤΟΝ – KALAVRYTA 25 witness. 1821” (the quote is from Exodus, o ', 3). The other side of the medal illustrates German.

Ο εορτασμόςεἰς τὸ διηνεκὲςτης Επανάστασης την 25η Μαρτίου καθιερώθηκε το 1838 by Royal Decree 980 / 15(27)-3-1838 Prime Otto namely George Glarakia, Secretary of State (minister) on Church, Public Education and Home.

The Glarakia was one of the main representatives of the Russian party, of Napa, which at that time enjoyed the favor of Otto.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

When history Chr. Koulouris the Glarakia trying to boost its popularity prosetairizomenos the appeal of Orthodoxy expressor, and possibly this is because the religious connotation of the decree and establish the feast.

However, at the first anniversary celebration, the 1838, by foreign ambassadors and embassy staff absent from the feast only those of Russia and Austria with their employees.

Moreover, from the early days of the Revolution it was evident the religious dimension of the Revolution even in non-orthodox religious observers while reports exist in all official documents of the Revolution (B.C. see Assembly Kaltezon, May 1821).

From D’ National Assembly of 1829 It had already adopted a resolution establishing the church where the Divine assistance to the Revolution honored.

The first celebration in Athens where he attended King Otto and Queen Amalia, civil and military authorities and many people, He became the Church of St. Irene.

The Cathedral of Athens founded the 25 December. 1842 and dedicated to the Annunciation to mark the 25 Of March 1821.

The 1839, Ambrose Fratzis says March 25th day was "explicit and implanted in the hearts of Pelloponesean etc.. as the starting day of the Greek revolution ", ενώ ο ίδιος παρουσιάζει τα γεγονότα στα οποία η 25η Μαρτίου είναι μια από τις ημέρες των πρώτων ενεργειών που άρχισαν μετά τα μέσα Μαρτίου και όχι «ημέρα ενάρξεως”.

After the official introduction of the celebration, and in particular 1841, It was attempted appropriation of the anniversary of the opposition anti-Otto portion, with private celebrations in which particularly the projected form of the crust.

The feast continued to be the subject of partisan and parochial conflicts: caused the particular reactions 1846 and 1847 the decision of Prime Koletti for an official ceremony at the grave of Roumeliotis chieftain Georgios Karaiskakis at Faliro, as it was considered to lead to identification of the Revolution with a person.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

The plan of the revolution

When organizing the project would start the revolution from the Peloponnese. This decision contributed not so frivolous promises some warm-blooded and overoptimistic friendly, as the conviction of Ypsilanti same circumstances that it was the most favorable.

The Ottoman Empire then faced a series of reactionary movements various pashas, particular areas Tounesi and Barbary.

But most important distraction for the Greeks it was the rebellion of Ali Pasha, which made them even though their Souliots to return to ally with their former persecutor, against the Empire.

Then there was the certainty that in the Danubian Principalities will xespagan unrest very soon thanks already starting undercover operations Xanthos and other friendly by insiders chieftains of these areas, like Giorgakis Nicholas, from Olympus, Savvas Kaminaris, from Patmos, Giannis drug from Blatsi etc..

Thus pressed from situations Ipsilandis issue of independence proclamation, passes the river Prut in 22 February 1821 and finally raises the flag of the revolution in the Danubian principalities and specifically in Iasi, Moldavia.

Two days later, at 24 Φεβρουαρίου εκδίδει επαναστατική προκήρυξη με τον τίτλοΜάχου υπέρ πίστεως και πατρίδος.

The choice of Moldavia and Wallachia should be sought in the fact that in these regions forbidden eve of the Turkish army, while the 1709 the local rulers were Greek Phanariotes.

At 26 February 1821 the temple of the Three Hierarchs celebrated thanksgiving, when Metropolitan Veniamin bless makeshift flag emblem with the cross and, in typical Byzantine, delivers the sword to Alexander Ypsilanti.

fundraiser then conducted to collect a million piasters, while volunteers from across Europe arrive in Moldova to serve in the military body created, even organizing the first section of Artillery with two guns under the command of Colonel Frenchman Olivier Boutier (Olivier Voutier).

Established the Sacred Band consisted of 500 students. At 4 March Greek sailors conquered and equip 15 ships, while in 17 March Ipsilandis raises the flag in Bucharest, addressing the army three pashas in Galatsi, the Dragatsani, the Slatina, the squalene and seco (Georgakis Olympian and Yiannis Pharmakis).

Ypsilanti's army was destroyed in the battle to Dragatsaniou 7 June 1821 and fell to the Austrian border.

The reasons for the failure should be sought mainly to the lack of well-trained forces, the refusal of the leader of the Vlachs Theodoros Vladimirescu to assist the economic and military and excommunication Ypsilanti by Patriarch Gregory V, under pressure from the Porte for massacres of Christians in retaliation.

The Ypsilanti surrendered to the Austrians, jailed and released on 24 November 1827. The poor health of the since not allowed to help the rebellious nation. Two months after his release on 31 January 1828 dies in Vienna.

His last wish was that his heart be removed from his body and sent to Greece. The desire held by Lassanis George and now at Amalieio in Athens. His life and the ways of indicating that he had myotonic dystrophy (DM).

His body was originally buried in the cemetery of St.. Marx and later his remains were transferred to Ypsilanti-Sinai castle in Rappoltenkirchen – Austria by family members in 18 February 1903.

The last transfer occurred in August 1964, when he was transferred to the church of St.. Archangels to Areos Park in Athens, 136 years after his death. H Ypsilanti Township Michigan in the US named in his honor. Later the city of Ypsilanti, which lies within the municipality, It named by his brother, Cerium.Let's see in detail, the highlights of the revolution.

The Peloponnese and the fall of Tripoli

The Greek rebels in the Peloponnese led by Theodoros Kolokotronis decided to besiege Tripolitsa, who was the military headquarters of the Turks in the region. The conquest of, September 1821, boosted the morale of the Greeks.

With the outbreak of the Revolution 1821 Peloponnese, the Pasha sent Hoursit 3.500 soldiers to defend Tripolitsa (Tripoli), where he and his family.

The Greeks revolted again, after capturing Kalamata, They made for meeting their further actions.

Theodoros Kolokotronis suggested besiege Tripolitsa, which was the central administrative, commercial and military headquarters of the Turks in the Peloponnese. He believed that if the Greeks managed to conquer the, They will be weakened and the other castles in the region. So, Rebels led by Kolokotronis moved to Tripolitsa, They set up camps in the mountains around it, and the siege began. After the defeat of the Turks in Valtetsi, near Tripolis, Greek fighters could be promoted closer to the city.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

He participated in the siege and Dimitrios Ypsilanti, who had assumed the leadership of the Match, while the four main camps ran Kolokotronis, Anagnostaras (reader Papageorgiou), Panagiotis Giatrakos and Petrobeis Mavromichaelis.

also, Greek forces were sent in Megara, to prevent Turkish aid to reach Tripolitsa from Athens.

As time went, The siege was closer. In the food city dwindled and began discord. The Tripolitsa fell to the rebels on 23 September 1821. This was followed by massacres and looting. Armed Greek, They entered the city beating the Turks, who barricaded themselves in their homes.

The Ottomans who barricaded the main tower, Great Tapia, They surrendered after three days of water shortage.

The fall of Tripoli, six months from the start of the Revolution, It was especially important, as he had shattered the main military base of the Ottoman Army in the Peloponnese and thousands of Turkish weapons came under Greek, boosting their morale. Insurgents believed now that the Turks were not invincible. Subsequently, winners of Tripoli turned to regional castles of Peloponnese, to besiege the.

The campaign Dramalis

During the 1821, Turks attempted to send the Peloponnese three Askeran, to stifle the Revolution. None but the failed to reach its destination, because of armed resistance fighters of the Greek Central Greece. One of them commanded by Mahmut, called and Dramalis because descended from Drama.

Dramalis was Pasha of Larissa and had military experience from previous operations in Serbia, in which participated. Having suppressed the revolutionary movements in Pelion, Agrafa and Aspropotamos, appointed leader of the expedition in the Peloponnese.

So spring 1822, having been to High 18.000 troops (pedestrians and horsemen), artillery and hundreds of animal transport, headed south.

Dramalis burned Thebes and Megara passed through the large army of Corinth. From there he came to Argos without resistance.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

Then Kolokotronis along with other fighters put under the control of the crossings and passageways, isolating the army Dramalis the plain of Argolida.

At the same time, inside the fortress of Argos barricaded gunmen led by Demetrius Ypsilanti and Panos, son of Theodoros Kolokotronis. The rebels, applying the tactics of "scorched earth", tagennimata burned and stored grain.

Exhausted by the siege of the castle, from food shortage and disease, the Ottomans decided to return to Corinth. But the four escape routes were occupied early by Greek forces, with command of Kolokotronis.

He got close to the Dervenakion 2.500 warriors, hiding in bushes 800 from them. But other chieftains, as Nikitas (Stamatelopoulos Nikitas), Papaflessas and brother Flessas Nikitas, They arrived to help.

At 26 July 1822 became deadly battle Dervenakia, where Turkish soldiers were trapped. Those who managed to save themselves, They fled to Corinth. In the hands of the Greeks fell many spoils, while Theodoros Kolokotronis was proclaimed Generalissimo.

Having lost 1/5 the army of, weaponry and many animals, Dramalis died of regret in Corinth. Revolution once again had saved.

The revolution in the islands

The revolution of the Peloponnese and central Greece soon broadcast on the Aegean islands. First rebelled nearby Spetses by Bouboulina, April 1821 and Hydra followed, led by captain Anthony Economou. Then they rose Psara, Samos, Kasos and the Dodecanese. Revolutionary activity manifested in Crete, particularly in Sfakia, while residents of the Cyclades seemed hesitant.

The rebellious islands participated decisively in the great uprising of 1821. The Greek ships, although they were fewer in number and smaller in capacity, They dominated the Aegean, as they were faster and had crews with great maritime experience.

Greek sailors were divided into three types of warfare: in coastal siege castles, such as Monemvasia and Navarino and support land battles from the sea, in raids on the coast of Asia Minor, wherein captures or destroy enemy ships, thus preventing the Turkish fleet to sail to the Peloponnese and in naval battles in the open sea, in which participated the famous fire ships, vessels filled with flammable material that binds the Ottoman ships and then taking fire.

Significant effect on sea developed, among other, the habitants Dimitrios Papanikolis and Konstantinos Kanaris and Andreas Miaoulis from Hydra.

Turkish response, They staged a reprisal against the Greek population that lived on the coast of Asia Minor and the islands. April 1822 Chios was completely destroyed by Turkish soldiers and most of its inhabitants massacred. It was an event that shook the Christian peoples of Europe.

The failures of the Turkish fleet in the 1821 They forced the Sultan to request the assistance of the pasha of Egypt Muhammad Ali, who had armed forces trained by European officers.

The following years conflicts sea intensified

May and June 1824 united the Turkish-Egyptian fleet attacked Kasos and Psara, which were the main naval bases of the rebellious Greeks. While the division plagued the Greeks, Turks and Egyptians landed on both islands and after fierce battles with defenders, the destroyed.

In the naval battle that took place late August 1824 Bay Elder, on the coast of Asia Minor, the Greek fleet managed to defeat the Turkish-bulky.

Admiral Miaoulis caused confusion in the enemy ships with the maneuvers carried out, while successfully used, fire ships, destroying one frigate with 1.000 soldiers and sailors. After the battle of Elder, the Turkish-Egyptian forces were scattered and retreated in search of safe haven.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

in Epirus, Thessaly

Simultaneously with the revolution in southern Greece revolted and Souli Epirus and the Thessalians and Macedonians.

However, the lack of organization and the presence of strong Ottoman forces in these regions has led the revolutionary movements in failure.

In the continent including experienced Souliots, who since December 1820 They were again in Souli, rebelled. In the same month beat the Turks, cutting the communication of Ioannina to Arta and Preveza.

Then they attacked Parga and Arta, which were important towns, but were unable to conquer the. Achieved, however, to defeat the Ottoman army in place Five Wells.

In late 1821, their Albanian allies abandoned and left helpless Souliots. Then signed a three-month truce with the Ottomans and returned despondent in the mountainous place.

After the killing of Ali Pasha, the Hoursit Pasha was preparing to go with his troops in the Peloponnese, to stifle the Revolution. Then Greeks and philhellenes fighters, led by Alexander Mavrokordatos, tried to prevent the.

But the Ottoman army was numerous and Greek forces, without the required organization, They were defeated in the battle of Peta 4 July 1822.

about 1/3 Greek militants killed, several others captured, and opened the way for the occupation of Western Greece and the first siege of Messolonghi by Turks.

also, 68 from the 93 Philhellenes with captain Andreas Denmark fell on the battlefield. The heavy defeat made them Souliots to capitulate in September 1822, finally abandoning Souli.

Thessaly was raised in May 1821. Under the leadership of friendly Anthimos Gazi and Kyriakos Basdeki, rebelled residents of Pelion, encouraged by the arrival of ships from Hydra.

Besieged Volos and Velestino, but they scattered when moved against the Mahmut Pasha or Dramalis from nearby Larisa, which was strong Ottoman army base.

In the same month rose and Macedonia against the Turks, led by wholesaler in Serres Emmanouil Papas, which was set by the Society of Friends of the Match leader in Halkidiki.

In March 1821 Emmanuel Papas left with guns and ammunition from Istanbul to Mount Athos, where a general assembly proclaimed "leader and defender" of Macedonia officially declared the Revolution. Starting from Mount Athos, roused Polygyros and Sithonia, reaching the outskirts of Thessaloniki.

The Turks responded by disarming the people, arresting notables and destroying villages in these regions. The rebels fought Ottoman troops in the Royal and Cassandra, but they were defeated and dissolved.

Turkish forces besieged Naoussa, where militants had taken refuge smigontas with armatolos Tsamis Karatasos and elders Zafiraki Logothetis. The Turks conquered in April 1822. The city was destroyed and women together with their children, for n’ avoid captivity, They fell on the cliffs of Arapitsa. The rebellion in the north had suppressed.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

The role of the Friendly Company

The founders of the Friendly Society Skoufas Nikolaos, Emmanuel Xanthos and Athanasios Tsakalov, They proceeded to members subscribing to the Greek communities abroad and in the Danubian Principalities, encouraged by the revolutionary spirit of Rigas, matches Lambros Katsoni and Souli and the turmoil that caused the Ottoman Empire unruly pashas.

the Friendly, as called members, using cryptographic code to communicate with each other and signed with pseudonyms. Their initiation into the organization took the form of ritual, that the seal the oath in front of the priest.

The Friendly let be understood that behind the company was a Great Power, wanted the release of the Greeks.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

Many thought behind the secret Top Society of Friends hiding Russia, but the leaders knew well, although not reveal, that the organization was based on the enthusiasm of patriotic scholars and the money paid by the members written is, particularly employees and dealers.

The members of the Friendly Company at first was little. The 1818, Nevertheless, The organization moved its headquarters in the heart of the Ottoman Empire, Istanbul.

Then the recruiting members spread throughout the Ottoman Empire and Greece today.

S.’ They initiated many of the protagonists of the Match, as Archimandrite Gregory Fair or Papaflessas, former thief Theodoros Kolokotronis, the chieftains and Yiannis Pharmakis Georgakis Olympian and several others.

The organization helped decisively and merchant Panagiotis Sekeris, offered much of his estate.

The Ypsilanti and the revolution

Alexander Ypsilanti was the son of Constantine Ypsilanti, Prince of Moldavia and fry wealthy and powerful family Fanariote. Born in Istanbul in 1792. The 1810 He enlisted with the rank of anthypilarchou (lieutenant of Cavalry) the body of horseback bodyguards Tsar Alexander I of Russia.

He distinguished himself in the wars against Napoleon, where the Battle of Dresden, (27 August 1813 n.im.), He lost his right hand. The 1814-1815 and he participated as a member of the imperial sequence at the Congress of Vienna with the rank of Major General.

The friendly had information about his patriotic feelings, which was expressed in narrow circles and Greek Philellinon.

So mediated Amicable Constantine Kantioti who was employed despite Kapodistrias, after the latter's refusal to take the captain Friendly Society, Emmanuel Xanthos went to the cousin of Ypsilanti, Ioannis Manos, in order to bring him into contact with Prince Alexander Ypsilanti.

At that meeting , held in Petersburg on 11 April 1820, Ipsilandis the received courteously and after some questions about the origin and various other assumptions inquired how the Greeks spend. The blonde replied that the Turks everywhere tyrants and tyranny that they have now become unbearable.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

Then followed the following dramatic dialogue:

– Ypsilanti: "Why the Greeks do not try to act so, if they can not be freed from the yoke, at least lighten the;»

– Blond: "Prince, by what means and with what drivers energisosin the unhappy Greeks improvement of the political situation of; They were abandoned by those, eutin edynanto them odigisosi, because all good Greeks resorting to foreign lands and leave them expatriates of orphans. Here Count Kapodistrias serve Russia, the deceased your father fled here and Karatzas in Italian, ye himself serving Russia Recover favor of your right hand, et equal good resort in christianikin Evropin stay there, without caring for the unfortunate brothers of. "

– Ypsilanti: "If I knew that I had need of expatriates from me and estochazonto, that edynamin contribute in-being of, I tell you honestly, I wanted after I do every willingness sacrifice, even my condition, and myself will be sacrificed in favor of these ".

– Blond (stands up and excited): "Give me Prince, your hand to vevaiosin what ekfrasthite ".

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

Looking at him straight in the eye with admiration the Ypsilanti gave him his hand

The next day Xanthos visiting Prince and reveals the secrets of the Friendly Society. He agreed to serve and swears at the typical company, where General Commissioner of the Authority recognized. He was given the nickname "Good" and the Greek letters "AP" alphabet to sign his letters.

The Friendly Society was now the leader of (Petrograd 12 April 1820)

By taking over the leadership of the Friendly Society view on the usefulness of the current institution of the Company's Committees, not only maintained but strengthened him with his own instructions aimed more to the selection and supervision of members, to help the weak and the way admission of converts.

Simultaneously sent circulars ephorates and printed bills on voluntary contributions of expatriates.

Bills those THE NOTICE location modern national bonds were signed by him Ypsilanti or their representatives.

Alongside, banned the use of public money without his order, and opened correspondence with the eminent (spiritually) States, as well as the most active in announcing his election as General Commissioner, reminding them of their duties and guiding them for the creation of new tax administration and collection of contributions.

He praised those commissioners and their exhibiting a particular activity, όπως εκείνους τηςΦιλόγενης Κάσσαςτης Μόσχας, establishing a central fund of Friends in Istanbul. Both these organizations intended to meet the needs of the Company for the financing of the future struggle of the Greeks.

In late 1820, his brother Alexander Ypsilanti, Ipsilandis Nikolaos prepare and submit for approval to the military organization in organizing voluntary army. According to him, the army of the Greek revolution would mainly consist of captains and managers will have the following degrees: pentikontarchou, centurion, Major, chiliarch and warlord.

The Greek flag will have three colors: white black and red

Η σημαία της ξηράς θα έφερε στη μία πλευρά το μυθικό φοίνικα μέσα σε φλόγες και τονακτινοβόλο παντόπτη οφθαλμόμε την επιγραφή «εκ της τέφρας αναγεννώμαι», in no other, the ancient Greek cross (isokero), in dafnino wreath and below the inscription "In this interim point Nika".

Note that eventually the above measures of Ypsilanti and plans of Friendly the only proven, based on historical data, have been essential in Greek palingenesis, was the institution of Committees, who acted as a long-standing Community body of the Greeks and the organization of so-called "apostles".

Conversely, the practical organization of the whole movement, ie the supply of the Greeks with the necessary ammunition, food etc.. characterized by very rough to nonexistent.

Almost all historians and historians of that time wondering how successful revolution, when the concentration of the material was mainly due to individual initiatives, jerky and uncoordinated.

In general, the contribution of Friends in this area was insignificant. Even agonists 21, when free anymore, after the nearly nine-year, bloody struggle that reflects the dangerous adventure, often they experience the vertigo and tremor feelings feel after the salvation of anyone seriously threatened.

Χαρακτηριστικά οΓέρος του Μοριάεπαναλάμβανε θυμοσοφικά: "People told us crazy, we if we are not crazy, not ekanamen the epanastasin, wherefore ithelamen Ponder firstly by munitions, our Cavalcade, our artillery, our pyritothikes, our shops, ithelamen figured a force on our edikin, the Turkish force. Now where enikisamen, where eteleiosamen the good in our war, makarizometha, epainometha, if not eftychousamen, ithelamen eat curses and anathemas ".

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

Recommendation of the Greek State

The early years of the Greek revolution, the envoys of the Greek Government They were not even admitted conferences and meetings of great powers.

Until 1823, just two years after the outbreak of the revolution, They had established important Filellinon committees in many major European cities. One of the biggest was the philhellenes Lord Byron, whose installation in Cefalonia, resulted in London's support.

The first substantial consultation the fate of the Greek revolution began in 1824, ie after three years after its launch.

The 1825 the "Greek problem" intensely occupied the major powers, which of course they were trying to benefit as much as possible over the prospect of a future independent Greek state.

Factors indeed Peloponnese, The Kolokotronis, The Zaimis, The Deliyannis etc., They proposed the drafting of a text, which became known as "Act of subjugation" whereby they asked the British government να πάρει υπό την προστασία της την Ελλάδα.

The most important step towards a diplomatic solution, became the 1825 when I initiative Kaningos England approached Russia in quest for a satisfactory solution to the Greek problem.

At 4 April 1826 signed after several adventures, one anglorosikon negotiation protocol which included a plan to solve the Greek problem. This text became known in history, until the Protocol Petersburg and recognized the need for the existence of the Greek state in a certain format.

A prerequisite for the success of the revolution was the existence of financial resources. Actually, the January 1824 representatives of Greece Orlandos and Louriotis They admitted and with solemnity in London next month, published the first loan to the Greek Government, nominal value 800.000 pounds.

Particularly however onerous terms of the loan agreement, eventually led to the amount available, only on 315.000. This fact, finally enabled the Greek government to exert political, after essentially recognized the Greek State which now acquired a strong personality.

Unfortunately loan money, instead bring much-needed unity, They led to the opposite result, he brought civil strife and conflicts, regarding the management, followed and second loan, height 2.000.000 pounds.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

The political configuration of the newly formed Greek state was based on the presence of first governor, Ioannis Kapodistrias, a prominent diplomat and former minister of Tsar. Kapodistrias was declared commander of the Third National Assembly, with Kolokotronis initiative, for seven years and attempted to rule in a totalitarian way, in order to manage to create the structures of a modern, unified and organized state, according to European standards.

When the burst Russo-Turkish war, the 1828, He found a great opportunity to gather his forces and to attempt the recapture of Central Greece, achieving the September 1829 winning the last major battle of the race, in Petra Viotia.

With the especially the Treaty on Andianoupolis 14 September 1829 established the allocation of Central and Evia in Greece.

After all at 7 May 1832 with the Treaty between Bavaria and Large forces, the border was more favorable for Greece, Assam in-line Volou.

With the London Protocol on 3 February 1830 failed to recognize the full independence of the Greek state, however limiting its scope and returning to the Ottoman empire large areas of western solid.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

Fri’ but all the diplomatic skills, considerable intelligence and determination, He failed to complete his revolutionary work, after at 27 September 1831 ο Καποδίστριας δολοφονήθηκε από δύο μέλη της οικογένειας Μαυρομιχάλη.

His death, He left behind a very obvious power vacuum, leading to a chaotic war and many internal disturbances, between supporters and opponents of.

This demonstrated that Greece, unfortunately it was not yet ready to manage itself to achieve harmony and unity among citizens.

The solution gave once more the great powers, choosing to Governor of Greece, the son of the King of Bavaria, τον ανήλικο ακόμα Όθωνα.

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

By Otto adulthood, all important decisions for the future of Greece were taken in Munich his father. New capital of the Greek state and Athens was chosen head of state hierarchy was the Armansperg.

At 3 September 1843 the three parties and the military imposed in Otto, organizing a risky movement, the concession Constitution.

So we got to constitution of 1844 acknowledging remarkable powers in the crown and simultaneously protected first basic civil liberties and was the first political act for the future of Greece ...

, 25March 1821: The landmark day for an entire Nation

Source:Modern Greek History. Volume III. Patras 1999 Greek open university.

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The front pages of Sunday newspapers 18 August 2019

, 25η Μαρτίου 1821: Η ημέρα ορόσημο για ένα ολόκληρο Έθνος
Τι γράφανάρτησηει ο Κυριακάτικος Τύπος Διαβάστε τα 15 Highlights first and Back-Cover of Sunday Newspapers (the suspension is continuously renewed!!)...... The other headlines shortly ........ NewsRoom...

Newly elected City Councilors Guide!! Όλα όσα πρέπει να προσέξουν κατά την...

, 25η Μαρτίου 1821: Η ημέρα ορόσημο για ένα ολόκληρο Έθνος
Published gave the Home Office the driver of the newly elected municipal council ...... directions for finding each item and information that should know ...

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suspension 30 days, the demolition deadline, Or arbitrary premises Recreational Tourism

, 25η Μαρτίου 1821: Η ημέρα ορόσημο για ένα ολόκληρο Έθνος
file photo The suspension of the period 30 days, until 15 September, for demolition of illegal recreational or tourism facilities, provides for amendment of Mr. Costa ...

Mykonos and Santorini popular resorts that attracts ...

, 25η Μαρτίου 1821: Η ημέρα ορόσημο για ένα ολόκληρο Έθνος
villas 23 th. euro per sq.m.. at Mykonos - Over 20 th. the square in Santorini. Prices for summer cottages ...

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How to open a shaken can of soda, without becoming a mess!! (Video)

See the video below how you can avoid this phenomenon, when the beverage is shaken
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